The embryonic Italian Navy lacked a cohesive national officer corps, homogeneous crews, an appropriate training to experiment the new naval doctrines required to operate with the new types of vessels: the ironclads. Despite her unsuccessful contribution to the 3rd Independence War Italy was able to reconquer Venice and its region. The heavy shock resulting from the stunning defeat of Lissa opened a difficult period in the history of the Italian Navy. Besides the problems connected to the unification of widely different realities, Italy had to strife to gain in stature among the international powers.
The Italian naval vessels were engaged in the protection of national interests in the Americas and to establish new trades and navigation agreements with Japan, China, Thailand, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal.
In the following years, the commitment of the Ministers of the Navy, led to a remarkable reorganization of the Navy, laying down the basis for its future development. Naval planners became aware of the need to harmonize the basic training of naval officers; as a result, the two existing Genoa and Naples based naval schools were unified to form a single academy and, in , the Italian Naval Academy was established in Livorno to offer future officers a homogenous training.
In the same years the Navy urged the installations of naval bases in the Red Sea, took part in the seizure of Massawa and established the first Italian colony in Eritrea. After the heavy defeat of Adwa, the colonial development came to a standstill. At the turn of the 20th century, Italy joined the major naval powers of the world, taking part in the campaign of Crete and leading the first international coalition under Admiral Napoleone Canevaro. In , Italian ships and seamen contributed to the defense of the Peking Legations and participated in the operations against the boxers.
Thanks to the commitment by Admiral Candiani, Italy obtained a concession in Tientsin which lasted until the Peace Treaty. The Royal Italian Navy contributed to the birth and development of communications. Since Guglielmo Marconi had been carrying out his experiments on board Italian naval vessels. In the Navy personnel installed the first radio station in China, succeeding in establishing transatlantic radio communications between the Italian ships and their home country.
In , when the earthquake and seaquake of Messina, the naval vessels carried out rescue and disaster relief operations for the Sicilian people, fulfilling one of the first humanitarian and civil protection operations. The Royal Italian Navy was a key player in the war operational scenario, being thoroughly involved in coastal defense, protection of maritime supplies to and from the Mediterranean, isolation of Austria from the rest of the world by interrupting its shipping lanes, naval support to Italian land-based operations in the Northern Adriatic.
The Italian Navy also was instrumental in the evacuation of about , soldiers of the Serbian Army rescued from the Balkan coasts.
A kilometer long anti-submarine barrier made of nets was laid down in the Otranto Channel to prevent the transit of Austrian submarines to the Mediterranean. This measure was extremely effective. The Austrians tried to destroy the barrier several times, to break through the Otranto Channel.
The Italian Navy also contributed to the development of the naval aviation. In an ad hoc aviation department operated at sea and later two seaplane support ships were built. Also remarkable was the role played by the Navy in the land campaigns. After the withdrawal from Caporetto, naval teams were engaged in land operations to defend Venice. At the end of the war, in recognition of the successful results achieved in the protection of the city, Venice gave the Marines Regiment its flag with the winged lion.
Soon after, the Royal Italian Navy occupied the territories and the islands along the eastern coast of the Adriatic. The defense of the national interests in Istria, Dalmatia, Eastern regions and Aegean Sea urged the Minister of the Navy to resume the overseas campaigns to demonstrate European major powers the role Italy could play worldwide. In February , few months before the advent of Fascism, Italy took part in the Washington Naval Conference to discuss naval disarmament. The Five-Power Treaty established an equal ratio of warship tonnage between Italy and France , tons.
For many years, the lack of an air doctrine in support of maritime operations and the reduction of effective airborne assets in naval warfare had a profound impact on the course of the war. In June the underwater fleet could boast submarines, the second greatest submarine force in the world, after the United States, in terms of total tonnage. It was considered that the best impact with the marine environment was to live aboard a sail ship, which requires the widest knowledge of the natural elements.
Laid down on May 12, , launched on February 22, , the ship was commissioned as School Ship the next June 6, joining her sister ship Cristoforo Colombo. In July the same year she started her first training cruise in Northern Europe. The Italian Navy key missions were the control of the Mediterranean shipping lanes to protect Italian convoys headed for Northern Africa and the interdiction of the British shipping re-supplying Malta and Alexandria.
At the outbreak of the war, the Italian fleet consisted of two fully modernized battleships Conte di Cavour and Giulio Cesare , plus the battleships Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Caio Duilio and Andrea Doria , seven heavy cruisers, twelve light cruisers, over one hundred destroyers and torpedo boats, in addition to the submarine force over submarines.
Category:World War II cruisers of Italy
Despite the powerful assets available, the Italian Navy ships lacked air support and technological equipment, such as radars and sonars; consequently, Italian vessels were unable to detect British ships or to track a target at night or in rough weather. The first major attack against the Italian fleet occurred on the night of November 11, , when the British launched Swordfish torpedo-bombers from aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious. As a consequence, most of the Italian ships moored at the naval base of Taranto were damaged.
Other successful results were achieved by the naval raiders at Souda Bay March 27, and later at Gibraltar, Haifa and Malta. Within the war of the convoys, the Mediterranean was the theatre of major clashes between the British and the Italian fleets. During the war, the Italian vessels were also engaged outside the Mediterranean, namely in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and even on Russian Lake Ladoga and in the Italian concession territory of Tientsin China ; while the Italian submarines, headquartered at Bordeaux France , were deployed to the Atlantic.
After the Armistice Sept. The Peace Treaty imposed on Italy very hard restrictions. The building and the acquisition of aircraft carriers, battleships, heavy and long range weapons, assault craft and submarines were forbidden. At the same time, the treaty ordered Italy to put most of its naval force at disposal of the victorious nations as war compensation. Questo sito utilizza cookie tecnici e analitici, anche di terze parti, per migliorare i servizi.
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Puoi esaminare le opzioni disponibili per gestire i cookie nel tuo browser. Bolzano had a fairly uneventful peacetime career, which primarily consisted of naval reviews for Italian and foreign dignitaries.
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The ship was lightly damaged at Calabria, but she emerged from the other engagements unscathed. She also frequently escorted convoys to North Africa in and and patrolled for British naval forces in the central Mediterranean Sea. The ship was torpedoed twice by British submarines ; the first, in July , necessitated three months of repairs.
The second, in August , caused extensive damage and ended the ship's career. She was eventually towed back to La Spezia , where repairs were to be completed. Resources were unavailable, however, and Bolzano remained there, out of action. Plans to convert her into a hybrid cruiser-aircraft carrier came to nothing for the same reason. After Italy surrendered to the Allies in September , La Spezia was occupied by German forces; to prevent them from using her as a blockship , Italian and British frogmen sank Bolzano using Chariot manned torpedoes in June The Italian Navy ultimately raised the ship in September and broke her up for scrap.
Bolzano was ordered under the — construction program;  the Regia Marina had initially planned on building six heavy cruisers in the s and s, which comprised the Trento and Zara classes. These vessels were to have operated as two three-ship cruiser divisions, but by , the Regia Marina had decided to use Pola as a temporary fleet flagship while the Conte di Cavour -class battleships were being rebuilt.
As a result, the Regia Marina , which was under intense pressure from Gio. These included the new, longer millimeter 8. The sailors of the fleet referred to Bolzano as " un errore splendidamente riuscito —an error beautifully executed" owing to her weak armor protection. Bolzano was She had a beam of A large, rotating aircraft catapult was located amidships , between the two funnels. Her power plant consisted of four Parsons geared steam turbines , which drove four screw propellers , and were powered by ten oil-fired water-tube boilers , which were trunked into two widely spaced funnels.
The turrets were arranged in superfiring pairs forward and aft. Bolzano ' s secondary battery was revised several times during her career.
http://loopluxury.com/366-how-can-i.php The eight The keel for Bolzano was laid down at Ansaldo's shipyard in Genoa on 11 June , and her completed hull was launched on 31 August The ship was completed on 19 August and commissioned into the Italian fleet. The ship received her battle flag on 29 June at a ceremony held in the Grand Canal of Venice, in company with Trento. The following month, the 2nd Division became the 3rd Division. The ship steamed to the Balearic Islands to retrieve the bodies of six Italian sailors who had been killed on 25 May aboard the auxiliary cruiser Barletta by Republican bombers during the Spanish Civil War ; Bolzano arrived back in Italy on 3 June.
Four days later, she took part in training exercises in the Gulf of Naples ; these were held during the visit of German Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg. Another major fleet review took place on 5 May , this time to honor German dictator Adolf Hitler during his state visit. She was also present during the first Navy Day celebration, held between 5 and 19 June in Livorno. Upon Italy's entrance into the Second World War on 10 June , Bolzano was assigned to the 2nd Division in the 2nd Squadron, along with the two Trento -class cruisers.
The shells also hit her forward superfiring gun turret, though it was still able to fire. She reached La Spezia on 12 June, where her battle damage was repaired. By the night of 11—12 November, Bolzano had been moved to Taranto ; she was present during the raid on Taranto that night, but was not attacked by the British torpedo bombers. On 26 November, Bolzano and the rest of the fleet sortied to intercept a British convoy to Malta. She took part in the sweep into the eastern Mediterranean in late March that resulted in the Battle of Cape Matapan.
During the battle, British torpedo bombers attacked Bolzano but she successfully evaded their torpedoes.